Text file formats in multimedia

Text file formats in multimedia

A video file format is a type of file format for storing digital video data on a computer system. Video is almost always stored using lossy compression to reduce the file size. A video file normally consists of a container e. VP9 alongside audio data in an audio coding format e.

The container can also contain synchronization information, subtitles, and metadata such as title. A standardized or in some cases de facto standard video file type such as. The coded video and audio inside a video file container i. A program or hardware which can decode compressed video or audio is called a codec ; playing or encoding a video file will sometimes require the user to install a codec library corresponding to the type of video and audio coding used in the file.

Good design normally dictates that a file extension enables the user to derive which program will open the file from the file extension. That is the case with some video file formats, such as WebM. In contrast to that, some very general-purpose container types like AVI.

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The free software FFmpeg project's libraries have very wide support for encoding and decoding video file formats. For example, Google uses ffmpeg to support a wide range of upload video formats for YouTube. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ogg Video. As there were large communities online which create art using the medium of short soundless videos in GIF format, GIFV was created as a functionally similar replacement with vastly smaller filesizes than the inefficient GIF format.

Multiple-image Network Graphics. It is also used for storing high definition video on Blu-ray discs. QuickTime File Format. Samsung video format for portable players 3GPP. Categories : Video Video formats. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.File Formats for multimedia. The following is an outline of current file formats used for the production and delivery of multimedia data. Rich Text Format is the primary file format introduced in by Microsoft with the specification of their published products and for cross-platform documents interchange.

Plain text. Plain text files can be opened, read, and edited with most text editors. Other computer programs are also capable of reading and importing plain text.

Plain text is the original and popular way of conveying an e-mail. This format is common in desktop publishing world high quality outputand is supported by almost all software packages.

Recent versions of TIFF allows image compression, and the format is comfortable for moving large files between computers.

BMP Bitmap.

Image File Formats - JPEG, GIF, PNG

Initially this format is in use with Windows 3. It is quite large and uncompressed and hence BMP is used for the high-resolution or large images. This format which is similar to BMP, allows the files to be displayed on a variety of devices.

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GIF is a compressed image format. Most of the computer color images and backgrounds are GIF files. This file format is best suitable for graphics that uses only limited colors, and it is the most popular format used for online color photos.

This format is supported widely. JPEG was designed to attain maximum image compression. It uses lossy compression technique, where a compression method is referred that loses some of the data required for the image reconstruction.

It works good with photographs, naturalistic artwork, and similar material but functions less on lettering, live drawings or simple cartoons. TGA Tagra. It is the first popular format for high-resolution images. TGA is supported by Most of the video-capture boards. An extensible file format for the less loss, portable and well compressed storage of raster images. PNG works good with online viewing applications like worldwide web.

It is the most popular audio file format in windows for storing uncompressed sound files. In order to attain the reduced file size it can also be converted to other file formats like MP3. MPEG Layer-3 format is the most popular format for storing and downloading music. A free, open source container format that is designed for obtaining better streaming and evolving at high end quality digital multimedia. It can be compared to MP3 files in terms of quality.

It is a popular windows media audio format owned by Microsoft and designed with Digital Right Management DRM abilities for copyright protection.

RA Real Audio Format. Real Audio format is designed for streaming audio over the Internet. Besides the variety of audio file formats available, the most common formats are wave files. AVI is the video file format for Windows. Here sound and picture elements are stored in alternate interleaved chunks in the file.

text file formats in multimedia

MPEG-7, the standard for search of audio and visual content.Computer aided design CAD — CAD formats are vector graphics files that rely on mathematical expressions to create multi-dimensional computer graphics intended for use in engineering and manufacturing design.

CAD programs can generate representations and animations of two and three-dimensional surface projections of objects. Preferred Formats. Acceptable Formats. The Digital audio category encompasses formats used to encode recorded sound as machine readable files by converting acoustic sound waves into digital signals.

Digital audio formats are generally composed of both a wrapper formatusually the common name associated with the file extension, and an encoding method or codec.

This category includes two subcategories: digital cinema which encompasses digitized film; and digital video including both video digitized from analogue sources and born digital video. Digital still images are files that are sampled and bitmapped as a grid of rectangular dots, picture elements pixels or points of color.

This category encompasses two subcategories: digital photographs digitally captured photographs or digital scans of photographic prints or negativesand scanned text. Digital photographs include still photographs of natural, real-world scenes or subjects produced by digital cameras, and scanned images of photographic prints, slides, and negatives.

The guidance applies to master image files of digital photographs created using medium to high quality resolution settings appropriate for continued preservation. The requirements for digital photographic records such as aerial photography are described in section 5. Additional special requirements for digital photographs are described in 36 CFR Scanned text is a photograph of a printed page produced either by a digital camera or scanner.

General requirements for scanned text include the following:. Digital posters include both posters created digitally and scanned images of analog posters. Posters are generally large in format and usually printed and displayed for advertising and publicizing purposes. Geospatial records include digital cartographic data files and aerial photography that are created and processed in Geographic Information Systems GIS or other software applications for spatial analysis.

text file formats in multimedia

Acceptable for Imminent Transfer Formats. Presentation formats are used to convey graphical information to audiences in the form of a slide show. Presentation formats are not acceptable for use as transfer containers for permanent digital still images.

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The textual data category refers to two general content types: unformatted plain text or formatted. Structured data comprises the broad category of data that is stored in defined fields.

Categories for structured data are as follows:.

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Email does not include other functions commonly available via email programs such as calendars, tasks, appointments, newsgroups, or instant messaging. In order for information in a calendar, contact list, address book etc. Please note that NARA considers email attachments to be a component of the email record and does not require that unseparated email attachments meet the transfer standards specified by the format category under which the attachment alone would fall.

Preferred Formats for Individual Messages.An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. The bit layout of the audio data excluding metadata is called the audio coding format and can be uncompressed, or compressed to reduce the file size, often using lossy compression.

The data can be a raw bitstream in an audio coding format, but it is usually embedded in a container format or an audio data format with defined storage layer.

It is important to distinguish between the audio coding formatthe container containing the raw audio data, and an audio codec. A codec performs the encoding and decoding of the raw audio data while this encoded data is usually stored in a container file. Although most audio file formats support only one type of audio coding data created with an audio codera multimedia container format as Matroska or AVI may support multiple types of audio and video data. Although LPCM can be stored on a computer as a raw audio formatit is usually stored in a.

WAV and AIFF are designed to store a wide variety of audio formats, lossless and lossy; they just add a small, metadata -containing header before the audio data to declare the format of the audio data, such as LPCM with a particular sample ratebit depthendianness and number of channels. Among other enhancements, BWF allows more robust metadata to be stored in the file.

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This is the primary recording format used in many professional audio workstations in the television and film industry. BWF files include a standardized timestamp reference which allows for easy synchronization with a separate picture element. A lossless compressed format stores data in less space without losing any information.

The original, uncompressed data can be recreated from the compressed version. Uncompressed audio formats encode both sound and silence with the same number of bits per unit of time. Encoding an uncompressed minute of absolute silence produces a file of the same size as encoding an uncompressed minute of music. In a lossless compressed format, however, the music would occupy a smaller file than an uncompressed format and the silence would take up almost no space at all.

They provide a compression ratio of about i. Development in lossless compression formats aims to reduce processing time while maintaining a good compression ratio. Lossy compression enables even greater reductions in file size by removing some of the audio information and simplifying the data.

text file formats in multimedia

This, of course, results in a reduction in audio quality, but a variety of techniques are used, mainly by exploiting psychoacousticsto remove the parts of the sound that have the least effect on perceived quality, and to minimize the amount of audible noise added during the process. Most formats offer a range of degrees of compression, generally measured in bit rate.

The lower the rate, the smaller the file and the more significant the quality loss. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. File format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. See also: Uncompressed video. See also: Comparison of audio coding formats and List of codecs.

Archived from the original on January 29, Categories : Digital container formats Audio file formats. Hidden categories: All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from March Articles with short description Pages using RFC magic links. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Audible Amazon.Formatted textstyled text, or rich textas opposed to plain texthas styling information beyond the minimum of semantic elements: colours, styles boldface, italicsizes, and special features in HTML such as hyperlinks.

Video file format

Formatted text has its genesis in the pre-computer use of underscoring to embolden passages in typewritten manuscripts. In the first interactive systems of early computer technology, underscoring was not possible, and users made up for this lack and the lack of formatting in ASCII by using certain symbols as substitutes.

Formatting can be marked by tags distinguished from the body text by special characters, such as angle brackets in HTML. For example, this text:. The italicised text is enclosed by an opening and a closing italics tag. In LaTeXthe text would be marked up like this:.

Most markup languages can be edited with any text editorneeding no special software. Many markup languages can also be edited with specialized software designed to automate some functions or present the output as WYSIWYG.

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Since the invention of MacWritethe first WYSIWYG word processor, in which the typist codes the formatting visually rather than by inserting textual markup, word processors have tended to save to binary files.

Opening such files with a text editor reveals the text embellished with various binary characters, either around the formatted areas e. Formatted text documents in binary files have, however, the disadvantages of formatting scope and secrecy.

Whereas the extent of formatting is accurately marked in markup languages, WYSIWYG formatting is based on memory, that is, keeping for example your pressing of the boldface button until cancelled.

This can lead to formatting mistakes and maintenance troubles. As for secrecy, formatted text document file formats tend to be proprietary and undocumented, leading to difficulty in coding compatibility by third parties, and also to unnecessary upgrades because of version changes. WordStar was a popular word processor that did not use binary files with hidden characters.

However, the resultant file is a binary since it is compressed a tarball equivalent. PDF is another formatted text file format that is usually binary using compression for the text, and storing graphics and fonts in binary.

It is generally an end-user format, written from an application such as Microsoft Word or OpenOffice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Text formatting. Main article: Markup languages. Categories : Computer file formats Publishing. Hidden categories: Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.TXT is a file extension for a text file, used by a variety of text editors.

Text is a human-readable sequence of character s and the words they form that can be encoded into computer-readable formats. Learn more about. Please check the box if you want to proceed. Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and controlling threats to an organization's capital and earnings.

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The best video format for you depends on how you would like to balance the quality and size of the video file. Some formats are extremely small and are great for web streaming, but are low quality. Other formats are high quality and the right choice for commercial videography but are very large in size. Common codecs include H. A well-engineered codec has high efficiency, or ability to preserve quality while reducing file size. The container format is a definition of how the file metadata and data are structured, excluding how the video is actually encoded which the codec determines.

The container file holds the metadata and compressed video data which is encoded using the codec. Common container formats include. MP4, and. Container formats can be paired with different codecs that influence what devices and programs the file will be compatible with. However, using the codec requires paying a licensing fee so it is not widely compatible or supported by devices or browsers.

On the web. Like the. WEBP image file. WEBM was created by Google as an efficient means of disseminating media to a large audience. WEBM video files are relatively small in size, and as such are not as high in terms of quality as some of the other file types on this list. They are low in file size but also relatively low in quality. They also have lossy compression, meaning their quality will degrade after being edited numerous times.

MPV files are best used when video will be recorded once and never edited.

Appendix A: Tables of File Formats

OGG files are an open-source alternative to. MPG files, and are used for high-quality videos to be streamed via the internet. OGG files are used for streaming, they are higher in quality than. WEBM files — meaning they will take longer to be delivered to the end-user. Due to. OGG files being open sourced, they can be used in a variety of applications, including GPS receivers and media players both desktop and portable. M4V are similar to. MPG files in that they can contain audio and video, or can simply be solely audio files.

M4P, and. M4V are used for streaming video via the internet. They are generally higher in quality than. WEBM files, but tend to be larger in file size. M4V files are proprietary iTunes files that share the same qualities of.